Mainland Norway’s coastline is one of the world’s longest at more than 25, 000 kilometres, owing largely to the winding system of dramatic fjords running from the south coast off the North Sea to the northern border with Russia 15°C farther north. The Gulf Stream that brings warmth to much of coastal Western Europe gives Norway a mild climate despite its sub-Arctic and Arctic latitudinal range. The five million residents enjoy a high standard of living thanks primarily to the 1969 discovery of offshore oil and subsequent diversification of oil profits into other industries. Reminders of a simpler life of fishing percolate through Medieval Bergen and the many small communities that are separated by expansive boreal forest that eventually gives way to Arctic tundra where Reindeer and Arctic Fox endure. Millions of seabirds cover the steep cliffs of the Gjesværstappan islands just offshore. In the country’s most northern reaches, the fabled Svalbard archipelago is a jewel of Arctic wildlife only 10° from the North Pole.